The United Nations Charter prohibits the use of force by member nations except as an enforcement action taken by or on behalf of the United Nations as in the Gulf War or as a measure of individual or collective self-defense.
See Article History Alternative Titles: The CWC entered into force on April 29, Negotiating a treaty For almost a century before the CWC, a number of attempts had been made to limit or ban the use of chemical weapons in war. At the conference, the delegates agreed to prohibit the use of asphyxiating gases.
Signatory states at both conferences agreed to prohibit the use of poison.
However, once chemical warfare was introduced on the battlefield by the German army inchemical weapons were produced and employed by all the powers participating in World War Iand more than a million chemical casualties and an estimated 91, fatalities resulted.
Following the war, Germany was forbidden to manufacture or import poison gas munitions under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles Inat the initiative of the U. Ironically, the United States did not sign the protocol untilowing to domestic opposition and a feeling that the protocol did not go far enough.
The Geneva Protocol banned the use of chemical and biological weapons but did not prohibit the development, production, stockpiling, or transfer of such weapons.
Moreover, 25 of the signatory states reserved the right to retaliate in kind if another state used chemical weapons first. In reality, most of the powers that had signed the protocol had robust chemical warfare capabilities at the ready for use entering World War IIand all but Japan were deterred from use by the possession of such weapons by their adversaries.
After World War IIgeneral multinational disarmament negotiations took place at the United Nationsincluding further discussions of limits to be put on chemical and biological weapons.
Biological and chemical arms control were addressed separately. First to be addressed was biological disarmament, and this led to the negotiation, signature, and ratification of the Biological Weapons Convention in After UN negotiators turned to chemical disarmament.
In the United States tabled for consideration the first comprehensive detailed draft treaty by a major power.
Real consensus had been blocked for a number of years by Cold War politics, and it was not until after Mikhail Gorbachev became general secretary of the Communist Party in that the Soviet Union began to also embrace comprehensive chemical arms control.
By the two superpowers had begun to share a common perspective. While simultaneously working on a multilateral treaty, the United States and the Soviet Union, in a summit, also negotiated bilateral reductions of their chemical weapons.
Each side agreed to reduce its stockpile to 5, tons of chemical agents. With support finally coming from the United States and Russia following the breakup of the Soviet Unionthe UN Conference on Disarmament adopted the CWC treaty on September 3,and the treaty was opened to signature by all states on January 13, The CWC entered into force on April 29,days after the deposit of the 65th instrument of ratification.
Aims and terms of the treaty The aim of the CWC is total chemical weapons disarmament. Signatory states that possess chemical weapons at the time they sign and ratify the treaty must destroy those arms and their production facilities.
States members are also required to destroy any chemical weapons they may have abandoned on the territory of other countries. In Article II of the CWC, chemical weapons are defined as all toxic chemicals intended for wartime use, which includes not only the finished weapons but also their chemical precursorsmunitions, delivery devices, and any other equipment specifically designed for wartime use.
Certain kinds of toxic chemicals are, however, permitted by the CWC. These include those designed for peaceful uses, such as in experiments to test chemical protection equipment.INTRODUCTION.
In October , the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, which has Senate oversight responsibility for the Export Administration Act (EAA), held an inquiry into the U.S. export policy to Iraq prior to the Persian Gulf War. Medical Management of Chemical and Biological Casualties US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (USAMRICD) US Army Medical Research Institute of .
A chemical weapon utilizes a manufactured chemical to incapacitate, harm, or kill people. Strictly speaking, a chemical weapon relies on the physiological effects of a chemical, so agents used to produce smoke or flame, as herbicides, or for riot control, are not considered to be chemical weapons.
army, marine corps, navy, air force potential military chemical/biological agents and compounds fm mcrp b ntrp afttp(i) naval warfare publication. the commander's handbook. on the law of naval.
operations. nwp m (formerly nwp 9) fmfm comdtpub p department of the navy.
Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare.
Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities.