In casual encounters with the material universe, we rarely feel any difficulty here, since we usually deal with things that are clearly alive, such as a dog or a rattlesnake; or with things that are clearly nonalive, such as a brick or a typewriter. Nevertheless, the task of defining "life" is both difficult and subtle; something that at once becomes evident if we stop to think.
Florence Nightingale and the "germ theory" of disease.
It Believability in the scarlet letter essay often been said that Florence Nightingale refused to accept the "germ theory", long after the discovery that diseases are spread by micro-organisms, or that alternatively she was "inconsistent" in her attitude to germs. After objectively examining the evidence, author Hugh Small in his book Florence Nightingale, Avenging Angel shows for the first time that these allegations against Florence Nightingale have no basis in fact.
Very little research is needed to establish the truth. Over and over again in her letters and writings, Nightingale lays down the law about sterilising equipment used in hospital, to kill germs. It is astonishing how so many commentators have managed to ignore this evidence. Florence Nightingale, Avenging Angel gives some examples of how historians have created the myth of her resistance to modern ideas e.
The explanation for this is that historians, usually out of subservience to the medical profession, have wanted to downplay her acerbic criticism of doctors who could not understand preventive medicine.
Florence Nightingale, Avenging Angel shows how this lack of understanding is still leading to unnecessary deaths today for example from respiratory disease in the Third World, and from cancer and Hospital Acquired Infection everywhere. This page gives some additional insights into Florence Nightingale's attitude to germ theory.
One common version of the myth holds that Nightingale "never" accepted the germ theory up to her death in Her critics seem to use the "never" to differentiate her from most of her highly distinguished medical contemporaries who were extremely slow to take on board the pioneering work of Pasteur, Lister and others in the s.
Thomas's Hospital, by E.
Selected Letters by Vicinus and Nergaard p. Serious but popular books like this, by presenting no evidence to sustain these claims, create the impression that the issue is beyond dispute even more than Lytton Strachey's dilettante essay, which even claimed that she believed there was no such thing as infection.
The most explicit and high-profile support that Nightingale gave to the germ theory was in an chapter written in the late s for Quain's Medical Dictionary, first published in Nightingale specifically urges the use of antiseptic precautions the use of chemicals against germs.
It may destroy germs at the expense of the cuticle, but if it takes off the cuticle, it must be bad for the germs". When she came to hear about the aseptic methods excluding germs rather than killing them with chemicals which were making antiseptic methods obsolete she became a great enthusiast for asepsis.
Ellen Ekblom, Head Surgical Sister at the Helsingfors Surgical Hospital in Finland, told Nightingale in of the aseptic methods used in that hospital, including the boiling of swabs in blotting paper which the nurse opened without touching the swab, heating catheters to degrees, etc.
Nightingale said "I wish I had known this when we wrote for Quain's". In Quain's she had recommended disinfecting catheters antiseptically, using carbolic acid. Is a late date for conversion from antiseptic to aseptic ideas? Not if you take into account the "accepted ideas" of the medical profession.
The date of first introduction of a practice is not a good guide to accepted ideas, because of the conservatism of most medical practitioners.
Steam sterilisation of dressings was pioneered in Germany inand sterile rubber gloves for operations were first used in But author Hugh Small's father, when a young surgeon in the East End of London inassisted a senior colleague of the old school who still performed abdominal surgery the antiseptic way nearly half a century later, dousing his bare hands, swabs, and instruments in lysoform and often smoking a cigarette while he operated.
Alan Small described the experience in his obituary of the old surgeon, A. Couzens, published in the British Medical Journal in Nightingale's Quain's article contains an example of her criticism of doctors' misuse of germ theory: She attacked his official pronouncement publicly, and he later retracted his statement.
Historical Context in The Scarlet Letter. Ending this introductory essay with the sentiment of this dream is serendipitous because Hawthorne became an iconic American literary figure almost instantly after the Although the story is fictitious, Hawthorne incorporates realism and historical facts to enhance the believability of the story. It has often been said that Florence Nightingale refused to accept the "germ theory", long after the discovery that diseases are spread by micro-organisms, or that alternatively she was "inconsistent" in her attitude to germs. academic papers on the scarlet letter intercultural communication essay Thesis finder as the main academic writing of thesis header size. Contrast, differ, distinguish and differentiate) are often considerable can be what ford () calls context-free accounts () to anyone interested in phenomena only in a way of believability.
She concluded that medically qualified individuals cannot be satisfactory public health managers unless they abandon their medical careers. Belief in the myth that she did not understand germs has caused governments to ignore this wise observation ever since. Did she make contradictory statements about the existence of germs?
The above quotations show that she supported the germ theory, but is there any evidence that she was contradictory and opposed it on other occasions? Who started the story that she did not believe in germs, and on what evidence if any?
The first to make this claim may have been Lytton Strachey, who wrote in his Eminent Victorians that Nightingale believed there was no such thing as "infection".
Strachey appears to have got his material almost entirely from Cook's biography, but Cook as far as I can see does not claim that Nightingale opposed the germ theory or the idea of infection, apart from his mention of the Jervoise Clarke Jervoise pamphlet see below.
So where did Strachey dig this story up? Once one author established it as conventional wisdom, there was a tendency by other authors to reinforce it by decorating it with lightweight "examples" that would not have been sufficient to establish it in the first place.A lot of people consider Chillingworth very important to the plot of the Scarlet Letter, but find him not to be a believable character, and more melodramatic.
Scarlet Letter Analysic- Form, Plot, Tone, Essay; Believability in "The Scarlet Letter" Essay Words | 4 Pages. In the novel The Scarlet Letter many people argue the believability of the books characters. There happen to be several parts of the story that are highly believable.
But on the other hand there are many parts of the story. Free Essay on Nathaniel Hawthorne's Scarlet Letter - Pearl as The Scarlet Letter - Pearl as The Scarlet Letter The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne is a novel that shows the Puritanical way of life. Essay Metamorphosis of the Letter A in Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter - The Metamorphosis of “A” in The Scarlet Letter Six Works Cited In Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter, the meaning of the letter "A" changes throughout the novel.
Historical Context in The Scarlet Letter.
Ending this introductory essay with the sentiment of this dream is serendipitous because Hawthorne became an iconic American literary figure almost instantly after the Although the story is fictitious, Hawthorne incorporates realism and historical facts to enhance the believability of the story.
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