Notes Abstract This essay surveys the development and current state of electronic literature, from the popularity of hypertext fiction in the 's to the present, focusing primarily on hypertext fiction, network fiction, interactive fiction, locative narratives, installation pieces, "codework," generative art and the Flash poem. It also discusses the central critical issues raised by electronic literature, pointing out that there is significant overlap with the print tradition.
There is a great deal of variety in the imagery of these structures, but tame animals and wise rulers are common in structures analogical to the apocalyptic analogy of innocencewhile predatory aristocrats and masses living in squalor characterize analogy to the demonic analogy of experience.
Frye then identifies the mythical mode with the apocalyptic, the ironic with the demonic, and the romantic and low mimetic with their respective analogies. The high mimeticthen, occupies the center of all four.
This ordering allows Frye to place the modes in a circular structure and point to the cyclical nature of myth and archetypes. In this setting, literature represents the natural cycle of birth, growth, maturity, decline, death, resurrectionrebirth, and the repetition of the cycle.
The remainder of the chapter deals with the cycle of the four seasons as embodied by four mythoi: Theory of Genres"[ edit ] In the first three essays, Frye deals mainly with the first three elements of Aristotle's elements of poetry i.
In the fourth essay, he explores the last three elements: It may be referred to as diction ear or imagery eye depending on the critical focus.
Frye identifies the connection as such: The world of individual thought and idea has a correspondingly close connection with the eye. Rhetoric means two things: Rhetorical criticism, then, is the exploration of literature in the light of melos, opsis, and their interplay as manifested in lexis.
The radical of presentation—the relation or idealized relation between author and audience—is a further consideration. Difference in genre relies not on topical considerations science fiction, romance, mysterynor in length e. As such, Frye proposes a total of four distinct genres: These four genres form the organizing principle of the essay, first examining the distinctive kind of rhythm of each, then looking at specific forms of each more closely.
As Frye describes each genre, he explains the function of melos and opsis in each. To understand Frye's melos, it is important to note[ according to whom? He contends that the common usage of the term is inaccurate for purposes of criticism, drawn from analogy with harmony, a stable relationship.
Music, however, does not consist of a plastic, static, continuously stable relationship, but rather a series of dissonances resolving at the end into a stable relationship. Poetry containing little dissonance, then, has more in common with the plastic arts than with music.
The original presentation of the epic was ta epe that which is spokenand when an author, speaker, or storyteller addresses a visible audience directly, we have epos. The rhythm of epos is that of recurrence i. These are the rhythms most commonly associated with poetry.
Part of the difficulty comes from fact that this is the only of the four genres which has no precedent in antiquity. He acknowledges having used the term previously in a different sense. In this essay, the term refers to literature in which the author addresses the audience through a book, or more simply stated, prose.
The rhythm of prose is that of continuity of meaning. Drama lies halfway between epos and fiction, or more accurately, its diction must fit the setting and the character. Some characters may be melos-oriented, speaking in meter or with various rhetorical effects in song and banter.
Others may be opsis-oriented, speaking more in prose and conveying ideological content. Most characters alternate according to the dramatic situation.
Such a marriage of the appropriate language with the character and setting ethos defines a rhythm of decorum, the distinctive rhythm of drama. Classical lyrical poetry often presents a shepherd speaking of his love; he is overheard by his audience.
However, the distinctiveness of lyric comes more from its peculiar rhythm than from this radical of representation.A literary essay is a short, non-fiction composition that covers virtually any literary topic imaginable.
Authors sometimes write literary essays for reading pleasure rather than to convey a message, and students are often assigned literary essays to assess their knowledge of books or stories they.
One evening over dinner, I began to joke, as I often had before, about writing an essay called “Men Explain Things to Me.” Every writer has a stable of ideas that never make it to the racetrack, and I’d been trotting this pony out recreationally every once in a while.
An essay is a short form of literary composition based on a single subject matter, and often gives the personal opinion of the author.
A famous English essayist, Aldous Huxley defines essays as, “a literary device for saying almost everything about almost anything. Research Paper, Essay on Charles Dickens Free study resources: Free term papers and essays on Charles Dickens.
We are offering free complimentary access to thousands of free essays and term papers on almost every subject imaginable. Essay on The Definition of Love - The Definition of Love Love by definition is an emotion explored in philosophy, religion, and literature, often as either romantic love, the fraternal love of others, or the love of God based on the definition found in The Encarta Encyclopedia.
SAGA: The word comes from the Old Norse term for a "saw" or a "saying."Sagas are Scandinavian and Icelandic prose narratives about famous historical heroes, notable .