Amylase is present in human spit, where it begins the chemical procedure of digestion. Foods that contain much amylum but small sugar, such as rice and murphy, gustatory sensation somewhat sweet as they are chewed because amylase turns some of their amylum into sugar in the oral cavity. Numerous micro-organisms like Saccharomycopsis capsularia, Bacillus. HOP, and Bacillus megatarium 16 M, have been used for a -amylase production by solid province agitation SSF utilizing agro-industrial residues.
However, studies reveal that SSF is the most appropriate process in developing countries due to the advantages it offers which make it a cost effective production process [ 20 ].
Also SSF provides a medium that resembles the natural habitat of fungal species, unlike Smf which is considered a violation of their habitat [ 40 ]. Process Parameters The optimum process control parameters vary depending on the microbial source, desired end product, method of fermentation employed and many other such factors.
Temperature There are two temperatures that need to be in optimum range during production. They are temperature for the growth of the microbial source and optimum temperature at which maximum production of enzyme takes place.
The optimum temperatures for both were studied in strains of B. The enzyme production increases with increase in temperature till it reaches the optimum.
With further increase in temperature the enzyme production decreases. This may be due to the loss of moisture in the substrate which adversely affects the metabolic activities of the microbes leading to reduced growth and decline in enzyme production [ 37 ].
The optimum temperature for production of the enzyme by Bacillus sp. Enzymes are pH sensitive and hence care must be taken to control the pH of the production process. The production of extracellular amylase by the thermophilic fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus was investigated in solid state fermentation SSF.
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens produces the enzyme with an optimum pH of 7. The study revealed that the amylase exhibited maximal activity at pH 7.
The optimum pH for production of the enzyme by Bacillus sp. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. An initial pH range 7. Thermophilic microorganisms such as P.
Clostridium thermosulfurogenes yielded maximum enzyme at a pH of 7. An optimum pH of 9. Duration of fermentation This is a crucial factor in fermentation process.
If the process is carried out for a time period shorter than the optimum duration the maximum yield cannot be obtained. The enzyme activity increases with increase in incubation time till it reaches the optimum duration. In most cases, the production of enzyme begins to decline if the incubation time is further increased.
This could be due to the depletion of nutrients in the medium [ 3158 ] or release of toxic substances. Bacillus subtilis, a well known producer of alpha amylase was studied for comparison between different fermentation hours and the study revealed a high yield of alpha amylase after 48 hours of fermentation [ 59 ].
Different incubation time durations were compared for yield of amylase from Penicillium fellutanum isolated from mangrove rhizosphere soil. Common carbon sources used as substrates include maltose, sucrose and glucose.
This yield was a four fold increase when compared to shaking cultures [ 61 ]. In the recent past various substrates have been investigated for use in SSF technique. The aim is to use substrates that are waste or by products of other processes in order to make the process of enzyme production environment friendly.
One such substrate is oil cake. Oil cakes are byproducts of oil extraction. The chemical composition of oil cake depends upon the extraction methods used [ 43 ].
Due to the advantages that SSF offers bacterial species have also been used to produce the enzyme under SSF conditions. The specific activity of amylase was found to be Studies on screening various combinations of substrates for optimum yield of enzyme by B.
Banana waste has been used for production by B. On the other hand supplementation of different nitrogen sources 0. Few of the inorganic nitrogen sources include ammonium sulphate, ammonium chloride and ammonium hydrogen phosphate.
Most commonly used organic sources of nitrogen include peptone, yeast extract and soyabean meal [ 44 ]. In a study of production of the enzyme by Aspergillus oryzae, NaNO3 0.Free amylase papers, essays, and research papers. My Account. Your search returned essays for "amylase": 1 2 Next >> Free Essays.
Good Essays. Better Essays Gibberellin is a plant hormone that is involved in the production of amylase which is vital for the conversion of starch into maltose into glucose molecules required for the . Dec 01, · INTRODUCTION.
Amylase is one of the most widely used enzymes in the industry. It hydrolyses starch and is used commercially for the production of sugar syrups from starch which consist of glucose, maltose, and higher oligosaccharides ().Amylases are of great significance in biotechnological applications ranging from food, fermentation, detergent, pharmaceutical, brewing and textile to paper.
Essays & Papers Production Of Enzyme Amylase By Bacillus Biology Essay - Paper Example Production Of Enzyme Amylase By Bacillus Biology Essay Amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the dislocation of amylum into sugars - Production Of Enzyme Amylase .
Published by Basic Research Journal of Microbiology Acharya et al. 02 Figure 1. Microscopy of Aspergillus oryzae For amylase production starchy substrate is required.
for the production of alpha amylase  because of the low cost of substrates used for the production of alpha amylases. Thus the present study was designed in search of cheaper carbon sources for the production of alpha amylase enzyme by fungal.
Full length research paper Production of amylase from Aspergillus niger using a defined synthetic growth medium and also rice (Oryza sativa) as growth substrate amylase production studies have been done with mesophilic fungi within the temperature range of 25–37 °C (Francis et al., ).