Carol Colatrella Noting "the complexity of natural selection" as an example of emergent behavior, Porter Abbott defines emergence as "the coming into being of objects or patterns that are not the result of a centralized authority or plan or guiding hand or pacemaker or any other kind of control. These two panel sessions will consider how various literary and scientific texts from the Anglo-American tradition engage with Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection and contemporary theories of emergent behavior. Little Dorrit criticizes nineteenth-century criminal justice, government bureaucracy, and financial institutions as arbitrary and unresponsive to human needs.
A summer day at the beach. A boy decides to play ducks and drakes. A dog runs next to him. A series of semiotic processes has taken place here. The boy, dog and mosquito have perceived certain phenomena in such a way that they refer to something else than themselves: The things become signs.
We intend to concentrate mainly on the latter in this book. But since not only humans have semiotic competence, we will always be prepared to broaden our horizon. Let us begin by looking at what the boy does. He starts by choosing a stone.
Next, the ripples of the waves are read as indications of wind and current conditions, so they gain the meaning of being favourable for stone-skimming. Separately, the stone and the water each refer to something else wind and currentpossibly to something which is as yet not present the game of ducks and drakes.
The surroundings have become an environment for human activity. The dog, too, has semiotic abilities. With its sense apparatus it has selected a clump of seaweed as being especially interesting, possibly with reference to food or to a rival marking of territory.
When one perceives things as being signs, there is no guarantee that one does so correctly, or that one perceives all the consequences of the sign-making process.
Its registration 2 Introduction apparatus reads a phenomenon as a reference to food. But this causes a new sign — a painful or itching sting that refers to the mosquito itself.
This is read, localized and interpreted by the boy. Even though the processes might seem identical, they do not in fact coincide. Neither the boy nor the mosquito can do what the dog does. Indeed, they would scarcely be able to register what the dog has scented.
But with a special, elementary ability to change things into signs, each of them describes a circle around their life. They change their surroundings into an environment within which they can orient themselves accurately. They have to be able to perceive things as signs for food, danger, others of the same species, preferably those of the opposite gender, and they must also be able to perceive things as signs for possible movements, e.
Otherwise, they have no environment in which to live.
Their circles merely overlap. The boy makes the stone and the water signs by making a number of inferences on the basis of selected material qualities in things.
This sorting process takes place with the aid of a code he is familiar with. Using it, he rejects characteristics that are unimportant in this particular context e. He undertakes an interpretation. In principle, the dog and the mosquito do the same within their universes, and with the codes they are familiar with.
Because of this, the stone, water and boy cease to be isolated phenomena. In the act of interpretation they are bound to each other in such a way that they are integrated in a number of realizations and actions which are repeatable.
The sign starts a regular activity, an inference; it is thus that the stone as a sign through its meaning, its suitability for stone-skimming, refers to a future action that can be carried out precisely because the code indicates that here we can use the rules established via previous experience.
The single instance acquires a general, rule-directed nature, and thereby a collective nature. That is the second basic function of semiotic competence: Semiotics is about our engagement in this basic process as living organisms and as humans, and its consequences for our attempts to make the world around us our world.
In the next two chapters of the book, we deal with these fundamental semiotic functions:A traditional grammar of English Transformational-generative grammar Systemic-functional grammar Chapter 9: Making visual meanings Visual representation and communication Perceptual and mental images The visual design process Visual design analysis Paths to synaesthesia: making connections between visual and other modes of meaning Chapter a ‘visual koine” in defining the “international style” in the eastern Mediterranean during the Late Bronze Age (Feldman , , esp.
18 with n. 87). 6 Orthostatês simply means in ancient Greek “one who stands upright” but also attested with the specific architectural . 1 Cinquant’anni con il nostro territorio Questo volume è edito in occasione del Cinquantesimo anniversario di ifi S.p.A. This volume celebrates the Fiftieth anniversary of ifi S.p.A.
Provincia di Pesaro e Urbino Comune di Pesaro Fifty years with our territory A cura di/Edited by Roberto Pieracini Confindustria Pesaro e Urbino Associazione per il Disegno Industriale Isia Urbino IFI S.p.A.
Kimani Njogu F. M.
Middleton - Media and Identity in Africa (International African Seminars) () код для вставки. Well Played Further Perspectives on Video Games, Value and Meaning.
Well Played is another great book of in-depth close readings of video games that parse out the various meanings to be found in the experience of playing a game. Thoughts on Interaction Design section one u n d e r s ta n d i n g i nte raction desig n 1 Section One / Understanding Interaction Design 10 Thoughts on Interaction Design Interaction Design is the creation of a dialogue between a person and a product, service or system.